In today’s digital age, medical records are increasingly stored electronically and shared with healthcare providers, insurers, and other organizations. While this is beneficial for ensuring accurate diagnoses and appropriate treatments, it also poses a threat to patient privacy. As health data becomes more accessible, the risk of unauthorized access, theft, and misuse increases. This article will explore the privacy concerns within the medical field and how individuals can protect their medical data from potential threats. It will also discuss the importance of understanding medical privacy laws and the potential implications of medical data breaches. By understanding the potential risks associated with medical data and the importance of protecting it, individuals can ensure that their medical history remains secure.


Before diving into the specifics of medical data privacy, it will be useful to briefly discuss the overall concept of privacy. Privacy is a fundamental right that individuals have under Article 21 of the Indian constitution The concept of the right to privacy is discussed by the supreme court in Justice K. S. Puttaswamy & Anr. vs Union of India & Ors. In the current situation, it implies the right to decide who has access to one’s personal information, such as medical data. The right to privacy is particularly important when it comes to medical data because it concerns the highly sensitive information of an individual’s health and medical history. Private health data can be anything from one’s medical records to their social media posts. In many cases, it is also accessible to third parties, such as one’s employer or insurance provider. In today’s connected world, it is easy for individuals to leave themselves open to the risk of privacy breaches or data theft.


As medical data becomes more accessible, it is also more vulnerable to threats. This is due to a variety of reasons. First, individuals often do not fully understand the implications of medical data sharing. This can result in inadvertently sharing medical data across different systems, such as electronic health records. Second, people often rely on trusted third parties, such as doctors and hospitals, to keep their data safe. Unfortunately, these entities cannot be trusted to protect all medical data. Health data breaches pose one of the biggest risks to individuals’ medical data. These are instances when an entity, such as a hospital or doctor’s office, accidentally or intentionally loses control of a patient’s medical data. The consequences of this can be severe. A person’s DNA can be used to identify them, a key piece of medical data, such as a diagnosis, can be stolen, and the risk of identity theft is real. Inconsistent and inaccurate medical data, such as when a person has been given the wrong medication or diagnosis, can cause serious harm. In extreme cases, medical data breaches can motivate violent actions, such as a person’s doctor ordering a DNA profile to be used to identify them.


There are no explicit regulations in India that guarantee the privacy and confidentiality of patient data aside from the code of ethics.

The Indian Medical Council (Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002 indicate in chapter 7- (7.14) that a licenced medical practitioner is not allowed to share any patient information that was learned during the course of providing care or while using their professional judgement.

The implications of the infraction are discussed in Chapter 8.2 of the text. It explains that if a complaint is made about the professional misconduct of any registered medical practitioner and that complaint is brought before the Medical Council of Disciplinary Action, the appropriate medical council will hold an inquiry and will also give the registered medical practitioner the opportunity to be heard in person or by pleader after receiving the complaint. And if the registered medical practitioner is shown to have engaged in professional misconduct during the course of the investigation or procedure, the Medical Council may order that his medical practice be shut down permanently or just temporarily, depending on the circumstances. Additionally, in accordance with chapter 8-(8.5), the relevant Council may forbid the physician from participating in the procedure or practice that is the subject of investigation or inspection if the decision about the complaint made against him is still pending.


There are many different types of medical data. Some of the most common types include: – Health records – These contain a person’s medical history, such as a doctor’s diagnosis or medical devices’ diagnosis of device failure. – Biometric data – This refers to measurements, such as a person’s fingerprints, photograph, or DNA. – Genetic data – This includes information, such as a person’s blood type or disease susceptibility. – Health services data – This includes data collected and used by a healthcare provider, such as a person’s appointment history or diagnostic data.


Health data breaches pose a serious risk to individuals’ privacy. This is because a person’s medical data can be used to identify them and access other sensitive data. For example, a company that has access to a person’s medical data can attempt to access additional data, such as a person’s social security number, bank account, credit card information, or personal property. A person’s medical data also poses a risk of identity theft. A person’s medical data can be used to obtain credit cards, open new lines of credit, or obtain loans. A person’s medical data also increases the risk of bias when it comes to medical treatments and health outcomes. A medical professional who has access to a person’s medical data may be more likely to favour treatments based on this data.


It is important for individuals to take steps to protect their medical data. These should include ensuring that their data is secure, that it is only being shared with those who need access to it, and that they regularly back up their data. The following are some additional steps that individuals can take to protect their medical data: – Ensure that all computers, mobile devices, and other devices have up-to-date security software. This will help to protect against virus attacks and other online threats. – Implement a strong password policy to help to prevent unauthorized access to sensitive data. Use a unique combination of letters, numbers, and symbols. – Ensure that all social media accounts have strong password protection. This should include medical data, such as a person’s health plan name, names of doctors, or other sensitive data. – Be sure to regularly back up all devices, files, and data. This will help ensure that in the event that a device or computer is compromised, important data will be saved.


Accessing medical data can lead to serious risks, such as identity theft, medical misdiagnosis, and medical bias. With medical data kept private and secure, these risks are greatly reduced. It is also possible to receive personalized care, such as medications that are specifically tailored to a person’s genetic makeup. With secure medical data, it is also possible to better monitor the health of an individual. It is important to note that secure medical data is not only important for the privacy risks posed by sharing this data, but also for its potential to impact individuals positively.


Medical data breaches pose a serious threat to people’s privacy. With medical data being shared across different systems, it is important to understand the risks and protect it from potential threats. It is also important to know the different types of medical data and how to safely protect it. Understanding medical privacy laws, the different types of medical data, and the potential implications of medical data breaches will enable individuals to protect their medical data from potential threats.

Author(s) Name: Parth Mehrotra (Bharti Vidyapeeth New Law College, Pune)

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