The Union Cabinet has taken a new revolutionary step in educational policy and replaced old educational policy after 34 years. Economy, industry, politics, technology, new study vertical demands growth, change, and revolution in the education field. Every decade comes with a new education policy as per the demand of the market and industrial structure. The growth of the country opens new challenges and fields to look after or research on it, so education fields need details knowledge as well as advancement in every field. In India, Education policy started in 1968, then it changed in 1986, now after 34 years in 2020, the New education policy has applied. The transformational highlights of New education Policy 2020 are –
1) The single regulatory system for Higher Education
2) Entry and Exit with Multiple options in the degree course.
3) MPhil Degree discontinuation
4) Common Entrance Exams for universities
5) Low Stakes Board Exams
For the development of Educational standards along with innovation, today’s need, latest technology, and growth, the new educational policy has been approved by Union Cabinet for schools and higher education. It is the transformational reform in educational policy, which replaced old educational policy, 1986. The comprehensive framework of NEP 2020 is to guide the transformational development of education in the country. The announcement of New Educational Policy was made by the Union Ministers of information and Broadcasting (I&B) – Mr. Prakash Javadekar and Human Resource Development (HRD) – Ramesh Pokhiriyal Nishank.
The educational policy has golden footprints of evolution from 1968 to 2020. The first policy had launched in 1968, after that it was changed in 1986 and now after 34 years, the new educational policy has launched.
- The Educational Policy, 1968:
New educational policy is based on the development of education in the country. The government felt about the need for education policy in 1964 when MP Siddheshwar Prasad produced his criticism about the government’s lack of vision and philosophy for education. The commission of 17 members, which was headed by UGC chairperson D S Koshari, was constituted to write/draft a National Policy of Education. With different suggestions and recommendations of parliament, Educational experts, the Commission, and its members, the educational policy passed in 1968.
- The Educational Policy, 1986:
In Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi’s government, the Industrial Revolution started in India. Rajiv Gandhi started a new project of computers and the New Policy of Education of 1986 was revised in 1992. That time P V Narasimha Rao was Prime Minister.
- The New Educational Policy, 2020:
Now, the third New Educational Policy released under the PM of Narendra Modi. This policy is based on today’s Educational needs and the importance of vocational courses.
Scope / Features of New Education Policy:
- Schooling starts at the age of 3 years:
The New Education Policy (NEP) has come with a new concept of schooling age group. In the previous policy, the mandatory schooling group was 6-14 years, but as per the revised educational policy, the schooling group is expanded to 3-18 years of schooling. The NEP introduced three years of pre-schooling, age group of 3-6 years under the curriculum. The system will have 12 years of schooling with three years of Pre-schooling (kindergarten) or Aanganwadi. As per the old educational policy, the curriculum structure was 10+2. Now as per Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE), the old curriculum structure of 10+2 is to be replaced or changed by a new curriculum structure of 5+3+3+4 with the following age groups: Age group 3-8, Age group 8-11, Age group 11-14, Age group 14-18 years respectively.
- Mother tongue as an important medium of instruction:
NEP has majorly promoted and focused on the student’s mother tongue for the medium of instructions. If three language formula is applied, then also NEP suggest mother tongue for the medium of instruction. As per NEP, no language is mandatory to impose on anyone. NEP states that children grasp and learn any concept more quickly in their own home language. As per New Educational Policy 2020, the medium of instruction will be in mother tongue till at least grade 5. If the student requires more support for language support in the mother tongue, then it will be extended up to Grade 8 and beyond, specifically in their mother tongue, the local language, home language, or the regional language. It will be preferred for public and private schools.
- No UGC, AICTE, NCTE:
As per old educational policy, Education has divided in different bodies like UGC, AICTE, NCTE, etc., but as per NEP, Higher Education Commission of India(HECI) will be set as an upper-body for an entire educational system like higher education (Excluded Medical and Legal Education). Public and private educational institutions will be managed equivalently for regulation, academic standards, and accreditation. In NEP, the state-wise mechanism is to establish for granting grade to colleges.
- Vocational subjects are highlighted:
As per NEP 2030, no separation between art, commerce, science, curricular, vocational and academic streams. Students can select subjects as per their likes, hobbies, interests. Now vocational education and that related subjects will start from the grade- 6th with the inclusion of internship.
- Now No More Dropouts:
As per NEP, undergraduate students will get 3 years or 4 years duration with multiple exit options. In diploma streams, after 2 years of study or in degree 3 years of study, the college must give a certificate after one-year completion in a field, where vocational and professional subjects are also included. Academic bank of credit will be established by the government to store academic credits of students in digital mode, which would be earned by students from different HEI. It will be transferred to the final score of students.
- E-Learning Launched:
E-learning will be one part of education to deliver lectures or subject projects.
- Bilingual Method:
Teachers will be encouraged with bilingual teaching methods, so, students can easily grasp that topic.
- National Research Foundation:
Government will set up a National Research Foundation to research on current or future topics.
- New Gate way to Foreign Students:
Government has opened educational doors to foreign students, so the world-wide university will start their campus in India.
- Flexibility in Master’s Degree Program:
Now as per NEP 2020, Flexibility to the institution to offer different designs for master’s degrees. And MPhil degree is discontinued in NEP 2020.
CHALLENGES OF NEW EDUCATION POLICY
- Challenge to open new universities:
Today, if we study, then we will find 1000 universities across the country. NEP declared their policy about the gross enrollment ratio in higher education goals by 2035. To complete that goal government should need to open new universities per week, which will be challenging.
Bring new students:
There are more than 2 CR students, who are not going to school. As per NEP 2020, those students have proposed to bring to school for education. Bringing, those students to study its challenging job. It requires patience and promotion of different educational awareness programs. To accomplish this goal, min 50 schools will have to set up per week, so, this will be the most challenging task in COVID or post COVID
Challenge of funding during COVID or post COVID:
Funding is the task which makes this goal more difficult to achieve. During Pandemic like COVID or after COVID, India will run short will funds. NEP 2020 predicts an increase in spending from 4.6 % to 6 % of GDP, which will be around 2.5 lakh crore rupees per year.
Economy and GDP weakness:
On urgent and important bases, health care and economic recovery are on priority bases during COVID and post COVID. During the pandemic, our GDP ratio has come to 4. Our economists are trying to double the GDP ratio. The NEP 2020 is a journey of the next 20 years, and the next 2-3 years of the government has priority to balance economy and GDP rate, so, it will be challenging to NEP 2020 to fulfill the desired goal.
Shortage of trained Teachers:
The total curriculum structure will be changed with the new education policy in 2020. So, with the application of NEP 2020 to different educational institutions, training of new curriculum methods and structure is essential to the job. And in the educational sector, getting well-trained teachers are a great task. A shortage of trained teachers can be created barriers in NEP 2020 Application. As per expectation of NEP 2020, desired teachers and professors will be difficult in the next 15-20 years.
Inter-disciplinary higher education demands a cultural shift.
NEP 2020 focus on inter-disciplinary learning. In India, as per previous educational policy is departmentalized and isolated from others. Professor and teacher’s interest in changing from one subject to another will be challenging. Cultural change in educational institutions is a difficult task.
New Education Policy 2020 is based on current needs, education, economy, industrial demands. Vocational course importance will be a great step in new educational policy, which can help students to select their subject with their other vocational or extra-curriculum activities. Bringing all educational bodies under a single umbrella is the bold step of New Educational Policy 2020. The flexibility to an institution to offer different designs for a master’s degree will be master stoke an educational revolution. New Educational policy gives new study opportunities to foreign students. The government is going to set up the National Research Foundation for research on different upcoming topics or future needs. But the journey of application in a practical way in educational institutions is very much challenging for every institution. The goal of NEP 2020 is very high about 2 CR plus students which are not part of education it required patience and proper planning. For this kind of project, funding, human resources, another system, technology can be barriers to fulfill those goals. During the COVID situation, generating funds or releasing funds for NEP 2020 is the biggest challenge for the government. The government has proposed such New Educational Policy 2020 to cover all student’s educational and qualification goals to accomplish and get degrees to maximum people. The new structure of the curriculum is a little bit complicated, but it will be helpful to student’s careers in the future. But after crashes GDP ratio, and economic imbalance NEP 2020 implementation will be challenging without fund.
Author(s) Name: Dr. Shivangi Zarkar (Advocate and Corporate Counsel)