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Environmental regulation may be a huge and converting area that offers the outcomes of human interest within the ecosystem. It is a department of regulation that lays the basis for coping with all the issues that rise up due to international weather change, pollution, aid exploitation, and so on. due to the enormous effect at the pastimes of human beings, communities, and one-of-a-kind entities, environmental disputes are very tough and hard to clear up. The ADR approach, on the alternative hand, handles it in a proper systematic manner.[1] Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), sometimes known as Environmental Dispute Resolution (EDR), is an out-of-court method of resolving disputes between parties. ADR may be used to resolve practically any legal issue, although it is most commonly utilized to resolve environmental conflicts. Negotiation, mediation, adjudication, arbitration, ministerial, and summary jury trial are some of the ADR options accessible, which range from informal to formal. Litigation is more formal, time-consuming, and expensive.[2] As a result of the volume of outstanding cases, the litigation procedure becomes lengthy and difficult. ADR also provides a chance for the parties’ relationship to be mended. It is significantly more private, and the parties have complete control over the outcome of ADR. Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is being utilized to handle environmental issues in a variety of ways.

Present Indian Scenario

India’s development in environmental dispute decisions has a number of promises. Facilitated negotiation, in particular, can grow the device’s potential to deliver justice to society through neutralizing communique capabilities and using negotiating methods. Despite the plain fee of those techniques, 3 main roadblocks stand withinside the manner of mediation in India. Despite their speedy expansion, recognition of those aided negotiation strategies remains restricted. Judges and legal professionals have valid worries concerning the connection between mediation and the authentic courtroom docket process, in addition to robust scepticism approximately the usage of mediation in a huge variety of conditions in India.[3]

The quest for a powerful institutional reaction to the demanding situations presented through environmental conflicts and crises ought to be pursued with zeal. Unfortunately, the failure to finish the established order of the National Environment Protection Act (NEPA) and the established order of the National Green Tribunal (NGT), which is not able to completely make use of its potential, has exacerbated the situation. If the Tribunal isn’t always given the authority to listen to instances introduced through modern-day environment our bodies which include the Pollution Control Board and the projected NEPA, those our bodies could grow to be inflicting extra issues in preference to solving them.[4]As a result, organizing a robust environmental governance framework in a country like India is critical. In order to build a successful institutional framework for environmental governance in India, present institutions must be questioned. We may be able to assess the benefits of building one in our nation if we do a comparative review of administrative ADR processes for environmental conflict resolution that exist in plenty of other regions of the world.

National Green Tribunal

The National Green Tribunal (or, NGT) is a statutory body whose mission is to provide a specialized forum for the effective and timely resolution of cases involving environmental protection, forest conservation, and compensation for damages caused to people or property as a result of violations of environmental laws or conditions.[5]Environmental justice will be expedited by the Tribunal’s specific environmental jurisdiction, which will help reduce the load of litigation in the higher courts. The Tribunal will not be bound by the 1908 Code of Civil Procedure’s approach, but will instead be influenced by natural justice principles. The tribunal is expected to determine petitions or appeals within six months after their submission, and it must make every effort to do so. The NGT will be created in five places at first, and will work on a circuit basis to improve accessibility; New Delhi would be the Principal Place of Sitting, while the other locations will be Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata, and Chennai.[6]

Specific adjustments that Environmental Dispute Resolution will deliver[7]
  • Increases efficiency
  • Reduces the amount of time it takes to resolve a dispute.
  • Encourages the use of constructive methods.
  • Stakeholders feel a sense of ownership.
  • Reduces the amount of time spent arguing.


The world community’s efforts in the form of international environmental regulations were largely responsible for the notion of environmentalism. The demands of environmentalism are amplifications of those of constitutionalism, namely, rule of law and basic rights that extend beyond human beings to include all living beings, separation of powers leading to the creation of an independent environmental regulation regime backed by the independent executive and adjudicatory institutions. Because the application of the rule of law and fundamental rights beyond human existence to impose restrictions on the arbitrariness in the exercise of authority by the State and other corporations will only be successful through separation of powers, the concept of independent executive and adjudicatory institutions is very important.[8]If a system is built on the above references, it may be utilized to build an effective environmental governance institution that preserves India’s abundant natural resources while also resolving conflicts that arise from abuses of those resources. The goal of this blog is to show how environmental ADR might help improve India’s environmental governance system.

Author(s) Name: Sidharth Kumar Pathak (Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi)


[1] Centre VIAM, ‘Role of Alternative Dispute Resolution in Environmental Disputes’ (VIA Mediation Centre) <> accessed January 6, 2022

[2] ‘Environmental Encyclopaedia’ ( January 6, 2022) <> accessed January 6, 2022

[3] ‘Hiram E. Chodosh – Law Commission of India’ <> accessed January 6, 2022

[4] Vikram, ‘Alternative Dispute Resolution as a Tool of Environmental Governance’ (THE IMW POST September 4, 2019) <> accessed January 6, 2022

[5] ‘National Green Tribunal: Latest News, Videos and Photos of National Green Tribunal: Times of India’ (The Times of India) <> accessed January 6, 2022

[6] (National Green Tribunal) <> accessed January 6, 2022

[7] ‘Presentation 10 Resolving Environmental Disputes’ <> accessed January 6, 2022

[8] Supra Note 4

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