Scroll Top



Forensic science is a type of science that applies to criminal and civil law and has various technologies. Forensic science is the use of science to solve crimes. But for that, we need technologies that help analyze the evidence and, with that, identify the criminal. Forensic scientists collect evidence from the crime scene and then process and analyze the evidence and in many cases testify before the court of law about the evidence they have collected, analyzed, and processed. For all these technologies that are needed, some of the advanced technologies are discussed below. 

Forensic science is an expansive field and integrates numerous advances going from design acknowledgement to substance organization to DNA investigation. Various fields inside scientific science have been worked on extensively over the years, and innovations have empowered new uses of forensic science. There have been various advances in DNA innovation throughout many recent years that thus have prompted the advancement of extremely precise measurable ID procedures. The procedures incorporate short pair rehash (STR), fast DNA testing, cutting-edge sequencing, and familial DNA looking. The headway in advanced legal sciences and the expanded use of computerized proof in courts requires reliable schooling for judges and legal researchers. This will guarantee that they are familiar with both the current and rising advancements relevant to forensic examinations. Additionally, there exist tough rules concerning the utilization of DNA tests during legal examinations. This requires an obligatory adherence to the overall set of laws by forensic researchers. Consequently, understanding the activity of various scientific innovations is essential in supporting the adequacy of the frameworks. Given because of the different improvements in computerized crime scene investigation and the guidelines for administering the field, this study zeroed in on investigating the different advances utilized in forensic science.


Rapid DNA:

Rapid DNA is a process where the analysis is fully automated i.e. hands-free. It is done without any human interaction. The sample is taken with a buccal (cheek) swab and later that sample is used for developing a DNA profile. It was established by the FBI in 2010.[1]

Forensic Significance:

  1. It fulfils all the steps of traditional DNA testing techniques in a short period of time.
  2. It assures the standards for the comparison of DNA samples collected at the time of an arrest to profiles in CODIS, which stands for combined DNA index system[2]. CODIS is a program by the FBI to support criminal justice in India through DNA databases, as well as the software used for running these databases.

Types of evidence examined:

  • Buccal swabs
  • Blood
  • Urine

This test plays a vital role in urgent cases, disaster management, and missing person analysis.

Phenom Perception GSR Desktop SEM:

This is a work area examining a scanning electron microscope (SEM) which is not difficult to utilize and one of a kind. It is utilized for examining computerized Gun Shot Residue (GSR). This investigation is finished with completely incorporated natural (EDS) identification.[3]

Role of GSR and SEM:

Gunshot residue (GSR) plays a vital role where the determination of a firearm at a crime scene is required. Whereas, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) helps in the scanning of the sample and then finding the “suspect” GSR particles.[4]

Benefits of this test:

It is easy to access, provides quick results, is low maintenance, uses less space in laboratories, and creates an automated run. 

LA – ICP – MS (Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. )[5]

This is a scientific and systematic technology that is very powerful and enables isotopic analysis and is exceptionally touchy basic, and the examination can be performed straightforwardly on social samples. This was invented in 1980 by Alan Gray.[6]

How it works:

This method follows an interaction called Laser Ablation. In that cycle, a laser shaft is centred around the test surface which creates fine particles. Later, these removed particles are shipped to an optional excitation wellspring of an ICP-MS instrument with the end goal of ionization and processing of the inspected mass.[7]

Advantages of LA-ICP-MS:

It is one of the most invigorating, exact, and quick scientific methods accessible because it would be possible. With next to no example arrangement, it can perform ultra profoundly delicate synthetic investigation down to ppb (parts per billion) level. This technique is environmentally friendly and delivers the fastest analytical speed when dealing with the detection of ppb levels. [8]

Y – STR ( Y Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats): [9]

This procedure has been utilized in Forensic Science examinations starting around 1990 when in Germany the primary case was accounted for. This test is utilized in instances of male-on-female rape, where the casualty’s DNA is in extraordinary abundance and covers the male commitment. Y – STR investigation can recognize the inhabitance of microscopic measures of male DNA of various or one contributor and afterwards the subsequent hereditary profiles can measure up to realized reference tests. Y chromosome haplotype reference information base (YHRD) gauges haplotype frequencies with a more prominent estimate than different strategies. [10]


  • Helpful in cases where the DNA from a female victim is in excess and only a low proportion from a male is available.
  • Helpful in detecting DNA of males, from under the fingernails of a female victim.
  • Even helpful in detecting the DNA from the skin from male ‘touch’ and the belongings and clothing of a female victim etc.
  • Very reliable and provides accurate results.
  • If there is more than one male accused present in sexual assault, this technique performs well in such cases.

Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing:

In this strategy, a sensible actual 3D construction is created utilizing a computerized 3D model or PC helped plan (CAD) module. 3D printing permits better perception, translation, conservation, and examination of the proof.[11]

Application of 3D printing in Forensic Science:

  1. Documentation: This technique is used to make realistic 3D copies of human remains from facts, which can serve in court without causing any bias or offending anybody. These 3D models can also be transported to other forensic experts, leading them to consult on cases without needing to transport remains.
  2. Human Identification: This technique can create an exact 3D model of dentition which can further help in the determination of age. This method can create a 3D printed model obtained from postmortem completed tomography (PMCT), which helps in minimizing some of the difficulties which are found in traditional autopsies, like examination of an individual because of the absence of the legitimate perception and rigour mortis. Similarly, these models can also help in the estimation of age and sex determination.
  3. Other applications: Dental Anthropology, bite marks, pattern analysis, forensic facial reconstruction, crime and accident scene reconstruction, ballistic reconstruction, forensic medicine, etc. [12]

Alternative Light Photography:

Under this technique, essential elements in a crime scene like biological samples such as blood, saliva, urine, and semen are tested for identification. Through this technique, forensic scientists use alternative sources of lighting to detect and identify the biological samples. Using alternative light sources, forensic scientists analyze the color of the blood stain. One of the alternative light photography that is used for the detection of blood samples in crime scenes is Rofin PL-10 Polilight, a xenon lamp of high intensity with select-able narrow bandpass filters.[13]  

The benefit of Alternative Light Photography:

This procedure of elective light photography sources to characterize organic examples is favoured because it is non-disastrous, basic, and hypothetical and can continuously be utilized to distinguish and recognize a wide cluster of natural examples.


Criminological science, which is Forensic science in this day and age, is a high-level logical strategy that legal specialists utilize both in criminal and common cases. This branch is fit for responding to crucial inquiries and structuring a necessary piece of law enforcement framework. There is a wide assortment of computerized gadgets that can be utilized. Examples are wearables, Internets of Things (IoT) gadgets, cell phones, tablets, workstations, work areas, and the expansion of cloud-based administration. In this manner, there is a probability that the number of cases that include computerized proof will increase altogether later on. The computerized measurable advancements are progressing at a disturbing rate coupled with changing guidelines and rules in applying advancements for measurable examinations to stay aware of the idea of violations and their recognizable proof in the advanced field.

The concentration in this way centered on looking at changed uses of innovation in forensic science to give a complete evaluation of the field. It fixated on five advancements as follows: checking electron microscopy, DNA fingerprinting, elective light photography, facial recreation, and LA-ICP-MS. The review tracked down a huge application of innovation in scientific examinations, which has helped with the further development of the field considerably. Since computerized legal sciences include various partners, more coordinated effort among researchers in this field is prescribed to help with joining the current and the new information for valuable application in the field. Additionally, it proposes the use of forensic hereditary qualities in additional areas that are not connected to human hereditary material. Potential regions incorporate cases including creature assaults, bio-violations, bioterrorism, and creature dealing.

Author(s) Name: Neha Nehra (University Five Year Law College, Rajasthan University)


[1] Murphy, Heather , “Coming Soon to a Police Station Near You: The DNA ‘Magic Box’ – With Rapid DNA machines, genetic fingerprinting could become as routine as the old-fashioned kind. But forensic experts see a potential for misuse”. The New York Times.  ( 21 January 2019).

[2] “CODIS and NDIS Fact Sheet” – FBI, USA, <,used%20to%20run%20these%20databases. > accessed 25 June 2022.

[3] Bierhoff Mart Petrus Maria, ‘Compact scanning electron microscope’ (2011) <> accessed 25 June 2022.

[4] ‘Gunshot Residue (GSR) Analysis’ <,and%20find%20suspect%20GSR%20particles> accessed 25 June 2022.

[5] Kym E.JarvisJohn G.Williams, ‘Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS): a rapid technique for the direct, quantitative determination of major, trace and rare-earth elements in geological samples’ (1993) 106 (3-4) Chemical Geology 251-262 <> accessed 25 June 2022. 

[6] Supra note 5.

[7] Supra note 6.

[8] ’13 TECHNOLOGIES FOR MODERN FORENSIC SCIENCES’ (ATA Scientific instruments, 17 January 2020), <  > accessed 9 June 2022.

[9] Kathleen A. Mayntz-Press M.S., Jack Ballantyne Ph.D., ‘Performance Characteristics of Commercial Y-STR Multiplex Systems’ (2007) 52 (5) Journal of Forensic Sciences <> accessed 25 June 2022.

[10] Supra note 9.

[11] “3D printing scales up” (The Economist) (5 September 2013)

[12]Gargi Jani, ‘Three-dimensional(3D) printing in forensic science–An emerging technology in India’ (2021) Volume 1 (1) Annals of 3D Printed Medicine <> accessed 9 June 2022

[13] B. Fakiha, ‘Technology in Forensic Science’ (2019) vol. 7, The Open Access Journal of Science and Technology, p. 4-6.